All posts by Brad Rushworth

Free Hosted Redmine Project Management

BitBot Software is proud to announce the opening of our new free service called Hosted Redmine.

Redmine is free and open source project management software. It is ideal for software development projects, but also well suited to general task tracking and small business management. Redmine is a worthy alternative to Jira, FogBugz, Trac and Bugzilla.

On this website, we can host your Redmine projects free of charge. All we ask for in return is a simple link of appreciation from your website to ours. And yes, you are permitted to use this website for commercial activities.

We are long-term users of Redmine. Hosting this service is part of our contribution back to the community.

This service will remain free. We may introduce an additional offering in future which allows each subscriber to have their own Redmine instance (and thus have administrator privileges) in exchange for a small fee. We might even host your source code repository. If you could be interested in such a service, please let us know.

Please register for your free account here. After you have registered and verified your email address, feel free to create your own private or public project. Instructions on registering can be found here.

If you are just looking to experiment with Redmine’s features, we recommend you use the official demo instead:

Make The Move!

BitBot Software uses Linux and many other FOSS software packages daily. In fact, we have made it our whole business. I encourage you to consider what Open-Source Software can do for you and your business.

What is FOSS?

FOSS stands for ‘Free and Open Source Software’. ‘Free’ in this context refers to ‘freedom’ (as in free speech), not price (although FOSS also tends to be).

What is Linux?

Linux is an operating system for your computer, in a similar way that Microsoft Windows and Apple’s OSX are operating systems for your computer. Linux is stable, extremely flexible and well supported. It is the fastest growing operating system in the world and it is freely available for you to install onto your computer! Sound great? It is!

Why should I move to Linux?

Ok, so your installation of Windows ‘works fine’ so why should you bother about Linux? Good question.

Viruses and Spyware

Linux does not suffer from virus and spyware problems like Windows does. This is because of the secure way Linux was designed. Imagine not having to worry about getting a virus or opening that email attachment! Feel confident when using your computer.

Security and Stability

Linux is designed to be stable, safe and secure. Due to the nature of open source software, any security flaws are fixed very quickly. The world’s best programmers and thousands of people contribute to the programs you would use everyday and this means you get the best software packages available which are continually being improved. Using Linux puts you in control of your computer and you can rest knowing your system is safe, secure, and the software will always exist. Security updates are always available and you don’t have to worry about issues like Microsoft no-longer supporting your version of Windows and having to pay for an upgrade (and probably a new computer!).

Package Management

You can search for and install software on your Linux computer in a single convenient application. No searching the internet for the files you need or fumbling through the latest CD you got in the mail, just hit the install button to watch Linux download the required files from the internet and install them for you. Not only this, but once you have your system and applications installed, Linux keeps track of all of the application updates automatically, regardless of whether you have used those applications before or even knew that they were installed! So whether it’s a security update, a new version of, or even the core Linux system itself, it is all handled seamlessly and easily. And, most importantly, being open source you know you can trust the software that is being installed!


Linux is often at the forefront of computer technology and innovation. It is not bound by the same pressures as commercial entities and people are free to be creative and innovative. Some examples of where Linux has already included features before Windows are: fancy 3D desktop effects with Xgl and beryl; TV and media centre with mythtv; desktop searching with beagle; desktop widgets with superkaramba; and many more. Plus, Linux is available for free right now!


Linux runs on anything. In fact it is the most widely supported operating system in the world! From brand new computers to old ones you were going to throw away there is always a Linux version for you. With Linux you can still browse websites all over the internet, watch movies, listen to your music, access your digital camera, use your scanner and much much more. You can also send emails and create documents that are compatible with Windows systems.

Free (as in freedom)

Linux is free open source software. This might not mean much to you if you are not a programmer, but even if you are just an end user, it means you can trust the software). Free open source software is also gaining popularity all over the world and is on the rise. Now is a good time to start learning a valuable new skill set.

Free (as in price)

You might think that your computer came with Windows for free, but you actually did pay for it. Linux however, actually is free. Forget worrying about pirated software! From complete office suites to media programs and internet applications, the open source software that comes with Linux is not only fully featured, it doesn’t cost a cent.

Easy and Intuitive

A single 20 minute install of Linux will set up all your software and all your hardware in one go! You don’t need to waste time searching for driver disks and going through the frustration of installing all your software. Once your Linux system is installed you will find it is very simple and easy to use. Linux is continually being improved and made more intuitive because people have the freedom to make changes to the software. These are then made available for everyone else to benefit from.

Choice and Control

Linux also puts you in control by giving you choice. Choice about what software to run and how you run it. You don’t have to worry about being stuck with one particular program or a set way of doing something. There are thousands of free computer programs available for you to install at the click of a button! Indeed you can even customise the interface to your liking, or choose one of the various Linux versions available that work differently out of the box. Linux is flexible and lets you create a system that works for you. Find or create something that suits you!


Everyone using Linux does so because they chose to, not because they had to. People develop Linux because they have a passion for it, not because they do it for money or market share. This means things are done for the right reasons. Users are always willing to help others and Linux is a global collaboration effort. The Linux community is made up of people just like you and it’s a great community to be a part of.


Linux is also FUN to use. Imagine actually enjoying using your computer again! There’s just something great about running Linux on your computer, even computer savvy people will be impressed!

What about my data?

One of the major hurdles when converting from closed source software is compatibility. Companies which create their own closed source formats make it virtually impossible for anyone else to know how their formats work. Despite this, Linux is compatible with almost every data format in existence and there is generally a freely available program that will read your data. For example, Microsoft Office documents are supported in the suite and Adobe Photoshop files are supported in the Gimp.

Organisations all around the world, including the National Archives of Australia, are switching their documents to this new format to ensure unrestricted access to digital information now and in the future. We encourage users to switch from using closed and dangerous proprietary formats to open and freely available formats, which will be around forever.

Other considerations

It is likely that much of your existing Windows software will not run on Linux natively. However, there are ways to provide a compatibility layer for Linux to allow you to run Windows software.

Most computer games will not run natively under Linux. There are a few however, like the Unreal Tournament and Quake series of games, which already run perfectly under Linux.

Essentially, the file format for Microsoft Office documents is closed source and proprietary. Although Word and Excel files are the pseudo-standard in many business contexts, it is important to understand that the way in which the Microsoft Office suite of applications store your data on your computer’s hard drive is not a standard. Fortunately, there are a number of excellent Linux applications which are great replacements for all of Microsoft Office’s functionality. Even better, some programs like the suite can even read and write Microsoft Office files.

Linux supports more hardware devices out of the box than any other operating system, however there is a range of devices that do not work easily. Most of these are what is called ‘win-hardware’. These devices have a software component which needs to be installed on Windows in order for them work. As Linux does not run Windows software these devices are often hard to configure. Example devices include some wireless cards, some printers, and some internal dialup modems. In many cases the open source community has written their own Linux drivers for these devices, however in some cases the manufacturer may not release sufficient information to make this possible. Fortunately more and more manufacturers are supporting Linux, so hopefully this issue will soon be in the past.

Will Linux run on your computer?

As Linux has excellent hardware support, chances are that the Linux distribution you choose will run well on your computer.

Get started!

BitBot Software recommends Ubuntu Linux for most casual computer users.

A big thanks to the author of this article Christopher Smart, originally published at Make The Move. This post is an extract of that article originally licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. For the full content, please visit Chris’ website.

Benchmarking OpenSSL on Linux, FreeBSD and Windows

Following on from my previous article Benchmarking Linux and FreeBSD, I decided to test the cryptographic speed of various Operating Systems (OS). For this test I used OpenSSL, which is the default cyptographic engine on Linux and FreeBSD. I had to install OpenSSL on Windows.

Experiment 1

The versions used were (all 32 bit):

  • FreeBSD 8.0-RELEASE-p2 with OpenSSL 0.9.8k
  • Ubuntu 9.10 (kernel 2.6.31-19-generic) with OpenSSL 0.9.8g
  • Fedora 12 (kernel 2.6.31-12-174.2.22.fc12.i686) with OpenSSL 1.0.0-fips_beta4
  • Mint 8 (kernel 2.6.31-14-generic) with OpenSSL 0.9.8g
  • Windows XP SP2 with OpenSSL 0.9.8h

I did cheat a little and use different computers for each of the tests, however they are all the same make, model, age and specification. I did this to save time. They are all Dell Optiplex GX280 Pentium 4, 3.2 GHz, 800MHz FSB, 1GB RAM @ 400MHz and Hyper-Threading enabled.

I tested SHA256, RSA signing and RSA verifying. SHA256 is regularly used for determining if files have changed or been corrupted. RSA is regularly used for securely transferring private keys across networks, such as before an encrypted website request, encrypted emails and financial transactions. Whether you realise it or not, you use these two algorithms everyday.

Now for the results:

Fedora has excellent results in this test, especially in the lower sized tests. However, Fedora is running a cutting edge version of OpenSSL that gives it the speed advantage. When I downgraded OpenSSL back to 0.9.8, the preformance was fairly equal to Ubuntu. However, this is the tenancy for Fedora, they prefer cutting edge software and quick introduction of new features. Of course, this leads to more bugs and perhaps less stability.

These results are very similar to the Sign test above.

Again, Fedora was very fast. However, once I downgraded OpenSSL again, the results were only around 5% better than Ubuntu.

I couldn’t get results for Windows on this test, it must have a bug in the OpenSSL port to Windows.

Mint is based on Ubuntu, so these similar results aren’t surprising.

Experiment 2

After completing these tests, I had an opportunity to test out 64-bit FreeBSD versus 64-bit Ubuntu. The hardware was kept constant this time. These tests were run on a modern HP Elitebook 6930p laptop with Core2 Duo 2.4GHz and 2GB RAM.

As you can see, Ubuntu outperformed FreeBSD by around 10%.


Don’t get too caught up with these test results, they aren’t that important when deciding which OS to use. They are testing a specific part of the system only. That said, Linux does appear to be somewhat more efficient than FreeBSD and Microsoft Windows in these CPU intensive tests. I didn’t test OpenSolaris here, however I believe it is another fine choice that performs well.

If you need a powerhouse OS to build the next Google, Linux looks like a fine choice.

Benchmarking Linux and FreeBSD

I was recently reading an article by the team, where they benchmarked various operating systems for performance.

On this occasion, they benchmarked FreeBSD 7.2, FreeBSD 8.0, Ubuntu 9.10, Fedora 12 and OpenSolaris 2010.02. The results were fairly unsurprising, Ubuntu and Fedora are really fast.

Note: Unfortunately I think they made a huge error: the OpenSolaris they benchmarked is 64 bit, where as the others were running 32 bit.

Some relevant highlights are:

Ignoring the OpenSolaris result as invalid (it was using a 64 bit OS), the two Linux distributions were a third faster that FreeBSD at performing RSA (public key) cyptography.

Here we see that writing to disk is slower in FreeBSD than in the other systems. This is due to the outdated UFS filesystem that FreeBSD uses by default. You will notice that OpenSolaris is very fast. It uses ZFS as the filesystem. ZFS is now ready for production use on FreeBSD, and BitBot Software now uses ZFS with FreeBSD whenever possible as our default choice. Advantages of ZFS include excellent inbuilt software RAID, snapshots, rollback, transparent compression, and more. It is advised to use a 64 bit version of FreeBSD if possible and have at least 1GB of RAM reserved for ZFS.

Reading from the disk, the differences aren’t so dramatic. However ZFS on OpenSolaris again performs pretty well (especially considering the extra features such as snapshots).

I’ll be sharing some speed tests of my own shortly, so stay turned.

Software Freedom

Sometimes I feel as though our rights are slowly being diminished.

People are being sued globally for copyright infringement because content producers seem to be incapable of providing their works in the technological formats and sales channels desired by consumers. These dinosaurs will fight hard to resist any disruptive innovation (as has always been the case with large companies), even if it isn’t necessarily detrimental, but simply because it has risk. They are even suing websites and ISPs for the actions of other people. (By the way, copyright infringement is not theft; for theft to have taken place the offender must intend to permanently deprive the owner of the use of the item. Clearly this is not the case for illegal downloads.)

There is now anti-terrorism legislation in many Western countries, which has a long record of being used inappropriately (indefinite detention, no evidence, overused search powers, illegal wiretapping, etc). In Australia, we have no legislated guarantee of human rights and the government is opposed to creating any. Our government is attempting to enforce mandatory filtering of our Internet. Software patents, believed by many to be broken, are becoming more widespread, rather than less. Copyright is a government imposed monopoly that was recently extended to 70 years after the death of the creator; and the ACTA is only going to make this situation worse.

In the software development industry, things aren’t much better. Microsoft have since the very beginning embraced vendor lock-in and rejected interoperability. While you might argue that this maximises sales, it is also unethical and is even considered illegal behaviour in many countries. Microsoft is slowly changing (due to both regulatory and market forces) more towards software freedom, but it will be a long journey.

Luckily, though, in a growing sect of the software industry, things are largely changing for the positive. And the rate of adoption by consumers (either knowingly or not) is staggering.

Since around 1985, groups have been promoting the idea of freedom in software licenses. There are two main definitions: free software and open-source software. Collectively, these are referred to as Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS). Especially in the last five years or so, open-source software has become really popular with consumers and businesses. Many predict it will continue to gather acceptance.

Free Software Foundation

To quote the authority on free software, the Free Software Foundation:

Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer.

Free software grants you the right to:

  • run the program, for any purpose
  • study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish
  • redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour
  • distribute copies of your modified versions to others

There are two types of free software, copylefted and non-copylefted. Copyleft is a method for making a program (or other work) free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well. The main example of a copyleft licence is the GPL, and an obvious example of software that uses this is Linux. An example of a non-copylefted licence is the BSD licence, and an obvious example of software that uses this is FreeBSD. These are both still considered “free” and “open-source”.

Open Source Initiative

The OSI aims to achieve similar objectives to the FSF, however its definition was created independently.

Despite the fundamental philosophical differences between the free software movement and the open source movement, the official definitions of free software by the Free Software Foundation and of open source software by the Open Source Initiative basically refer to the same software licenses, with a few minor exceptions. While stressing the philosophical differences, the Free Software Foundation comments:

The term “open source” software is used by some people to mean more or less the same category as free software. It is not exactly the same class of software: they accept some licenses that we consider too restrictive, and there are free software licenses they have not accepted. However, the differences in extension of the category are small: nearly all free software is open source, and nearly all open source software is free.

OSI advocates open-source software on the basis that it is a superior model for software development, whereas the FSF believes it is a social and ethical issue. The difference is considered to be a “serious fracture” but “vitally important to those on both sides of the fracture” and “of little importance to anyone else studying the movement from a software engineering perspective” since they have had “little effect on the field”.

Private Software

Private or custom software is software developed for one user (typically an organization or company). That user keeps it and uses it, and does not release it to the public either as source code or as binaries. A private program is free software in a trivial sense if its unique user has full rights to it.

Non-Free Software

Non-free software includes proprietary, freeware and shareware software. Proprietary software is software that is provided under a restrictive licence, that does not meet the definition of free software.  Freeware is a type of proprietary software that allows you to use it without paying a fee, however your rights are still limited. Shareware is similar to freeware, except you must eventually pay a licensing fee.

Commercial Software

Commercial software is software being developed by a business which aims to make money from the use of the software. “Commercial” and “proprietary” are not the same thing. Most commercial software is proprietary, but there is commercial free software, and there is non-commercial non-free software. An example of a commercial free software package is MySQL.

You may sell copies of free software. However in the case of copylefted software, you must grant your buyer these same rights that you had. A number of large commercial software vendors gain a significant part of their income through selling or using free software, including RedHat Linux, Sun Microsystems, Google, Yahoo, SugarCRM, Canonical and a stack of small vendors and consultants (like ourselves). Joel Spolsky (a well-known software entrepreneur) explains the business strategy of many open-source vendors (the article is slightly out of date) through relating to the economic theory of substitution and complimentary items.

Please help spread the awareness that free commercial software is possible. You can do this by making an effort not to say “commercial” when you mean “proprietary”.


Unfortunately, software patents often limit freedom of choice and stifle innovation. It was once widely accepted that software algorithms were not patentable, but in 1980 the US Court Systems extended the coverage. Many people believe that software patents do more harm than good for the community as a whole, and the legal system still hasn’t stabilised what is and isn’t patentable. Some prominent examples include:

  • Microsoft sued Linux developers and users for using a free implementation of the FAT filesystem drivers. Microsoft invented FAT and holds a patent on a technique to store long file-names. The Linux drivers had to be rewritten to an inferior capability to work around the patent. Microsoft clearly wanted to avoid interoperability.
  • successfully patented the “1-Click” shopping-cart in 1998. They then sued Barnes and Noble over its similar “Express Lane.” Amazon won an injunction in December forcing its competitor to insert a superfluous mouse click. It was eventually repealed.
  • Microsoft was recently granted a patent for what many believe is a trivial extension of the Linux/Unix “sudo” command. This looks like a typical case of a blocking patent, where its purpose is to lock up a certain technology so others can’t use it. However in this case, Linux already had a very similar tool called GKSudo.

If you want to read more about software patents, an interesting article is Are Software Patents Evil? by well-known software developer and entrepreneur Paul Graham.

Digital Rights Management

Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Technological Protection Measures (TPMs)  are another negative force on software freedom. DRM are technologies used to control access to digital works or devices, to protect copyright in those works or the works used on the devices. Two current examples are Apple iPhones/iPad and the Amazon Kindle, which restrict what software and content can be viewed on these devices.

Imagine that you bought a new car that was only licensed for use within a particular city, only the manufacturer was permitted to open the bonnet, it could only be driven by you and you were not permitted to ever sell it second-hand. That would be totally unacceptable. But those are the exact rights that DRM effectively gives the sellers of music, films, books and other digital works.

Circumventing DRM became a crime in the USA as of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in 1998, and similar laws have followed in Europe and Australia. The FSF has established a committee called Defective By Design to promote resistance to DRM:

You might be aware that the DVDs (or Bluray disks) you buy are encrypted. All of the video and audio on these disks are coded using a key that the hardware attempts to keep secret. Hollywood requires that all DVD manufacturers participate in this restrictive practice, and they can use the DMCA to make any device that doesn’t participate in their scheme illegal.

This type of nuisance is but the foreshadow of greater ones to come. Standing behind the technology companies, the film and music industry (Big Media) loom large. To increase their control, they demand technology companies impose DRM. The technology companies no longer resist. Of course many of the technology companies now see themselves as part of Big Media. Sony is a film and music company, Microsoft is an owner of MSNBC, and Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, sits on the board of Disney. These technology companies cannot be expected to serve the interests of the technology consumer.

Big Media hope that DRM will deliver to them what their political lobbying to change copyright law never has: they aim to turn our every interaction with a published work into a transaction, abolishing fair use and the commons, and making copyright effectively last forever. They will say that you accepted DRM and willingly surrendered your rights. That you did so under duress, they will call irrelevant.

From a practical perspective, DRM is fairly pointless; it almost always gets hacked. Take for example the Amazon Kindle, commercial DVDs, Microsoft and Apple iTunes. Further, all music tracks are still available on CDs without any DRM, making copying trivial. History has shown us that eventually, obstructive technologies are usually recognised as a bad idea, and are often removed. It devalues the product, reduces sales and inconveniences the consumer:

I want to watch an Egyptian movie for my Middle Eastern studies class. But it is region coded not to play on my DVD player, in an effort to stop piracy. Now I have to hack my DVD player and break the law to get it to play. The movie isn’t released in the U.S. This is the only version that was ever published. Since it isn’t published in the US, and it’s for academic purposes, I can rip it to make copies for my classmates. That’s fair use.  But since I have to break the DRM to copy it — I’ve broken the law anyway.

Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) are technological devices or tools that attempt to prevent unauthorised or illegal access to, or copying or reproduction of, copyright materials. A well-known example of TPM is the Sony RootKit which was included on Sony audio CDs and design to prevent music on the CD being transferred to a computer and then burned to another CD. However, this TPM installed a Rootkit which left the user’s computer vulnerable to attacks by malware or spyware. The user was usually unaware of that the Rootkit had been installed and therefore their machine was vulnerable. Legal action was taken against Sony and they recalled all the CDs that included the Rootkit. See the 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal.

Open Standards

There are two major battles currently being fought in regards to open standards: document formats and multimedia formats.

In most parts of the world, Microsoft Office has become very popular. The Microsoft formats are proprietary and are not free (as in freedom). They do not publish a full specification for the formats and they obstruct other vendors working towards interoperability. You can’t use Microsoft Office easily on Linux or a few other operating systems.

Many people believe that governments should always publish public documents in open formats. Since their tax contributions were used to fund the document creation, they should be entitled to access the documents without being forced to use a specific proprietary product. Vendors like Microsoft are powerful political players and we need to be careful not to fall victim to dishonest “open” claims. In the USA, President Obama’s first directive was: “To increase accountability, promote informed participation by the public, and create economic opportunity, each agency shall take prompt steps to expand access to information by making it available online in open formats.” Not all countries agree with this position though (e.g. South Korea).

Open and free formats include plain text files, HTML, XML, CSV, Email, PDF (as of 2008), OpenDocument (supported by Open Office, Google Docs, Microsoft Office 2010, etc), PostScript, LaTeX and Rich Text Format. These are based on standards accepted by international standards bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization.

Microsoft developed the Office 97-2007 formats and the Office Open XML (Microsoft Office 2007 default format). These are usually considered open (as of 2006) but not free, as Microsoft restricts the technology using a patent.

In regards to multimedia formats, proprietary (and thus not free) formats include MP3, H.264/MP4 and GIF images. The open formats of Ogg Theora video, Ogg Vorbis audio and PNG images respectively provide good free alternatives. It is a little known fact that the MP3 format licences alone generated ca. € 100 million in 2005 for the Fraunhofer Society.

You may be aware that HTML4 and XHTML are soon to be superseded by HTML5 (all of which are open/free formats). HTML5 contains a new <video> tag. This is a big step forward for free software, since users whom wish to watch say videos on Google’s YouTube can now do so without the proprietary Adobe Flash software. However, the final HTML5 specification does not specify any specific codec, having decided to remove the Ogg format as compulsory in an earlier draft. YouTube have since decided to use the proprietary H.264 format for HTML5 video. Many people think this is a mistake. You may notice that some free software (including Mozilla’s Firefox) does not support YouTube HTML5 video, and it probably won’t until this patent issue is resolved. However, it appears that Google is genuinely trying to fix the problem, although it is not yet certain.


Arguments about whether or not free and open-source software are enterprise ready is no longer relevant. We now know for certain that many open-source software packages are as good as if not better than proprietary counter-parts. Two quick examples are the non-commercial Apache HTTP and the commercial Ubuntu.

I have not discussed total cost of ownership in this article however it is often argued that it is lower in free and open-source software.

Hopefully you enjoyed reading this article and learning more about free software. If you want to discuss the matter further, feel free to get in contact with me or my team.

Further Reading

Want to use open-source software but don’t know where to find it? Try the Open Source Alternative website for a ton of suggestions.

There are a stack of open-source associations, and some Australian ones can be found here. There is an Australian law firm that specialises in open-source software.

If you are looking to make documents and other non-software works “free”, I recommend that you look to Creative Commons. Wikipedia content is licensed under a Creative Commons licence. A growing amount of Australian government information is released under Creative Commons. In fact, this article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. Feel free to share it, subject to the few conditions.